Script format document authentication scheme based on watermarking techniques

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M. González-Lee
M. Nakano-Miyatake
H. Pérez-Meana
G. Sánchez-Pérez


In almost all watermarking-based document authentication systems, the documents are considered as binary images and then, the watermark is embedded using some image watermarking algorithm. However actually important documents are saved using document file formats, such as Portable Document Format (PDF) or Open Document Format (ODF), among others, because in general the file size is smaller compared with an image file, and also these are considered as more secure than other types of file format. However, the documents with these formats can also be maliciously modified for illegal purposes, making necessary the development of mechanisms that are able to detect such modifications. Considering the situations mentioned above, this paper proposes a document authentication scheme in which a watermark is directly embedded into the document file format as part of the document itself. The experimental results show a desirable performance of the proposed algorithm. All Rights Reserved © 2015 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico. This is an open access item distributed under the Creative Commons CC License BY-NC-ND 4.0.



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How to Cite
González-Lee, M., Nakano-Miyatake, M., Pérez-Meana, H., & Sánchez-Pérez, G. (2015). Script format document authentication scheme based on watermarking techniques. Journal of Applied Research and Technology, 13(3).